Politics is a study of how people make political decisions. Politics is basically the collection of political activities which are related to making political decisions in groups, whether in terms of political institutions or political power relationships between people, like the distribution of land or wealth. The branch of sociology that studies politics and political systems is known as political science. Politics also includes the history of politics, the social construction of politics, the political systems of different countries and civilizations, and political institutions which are still in existence in some parts of the world today.
Politics and political power relations are an increasingly important field of study in today’s world. The most significant change in politics came with the adoption of the managerial theory of policy-planning networks. This school of thought, according to some historians, gave rise to the modern welfare state. The welfare state, after all, did not just emerge one day; it was a long process of evolution, built on the groundwork of earlier institution. Among these lay the theories of managerial theory and political economy. In the United States, this theory of policy-planning networks, combined with the ideas of tariffs and protective duties, laid the ground for the progressive liberalization of American industry.
The origins of managerial theory are in the study of class analysis. Class analysis began with the rise of industrial capitalism, and class conflict began to surface in the early nineteenth century. Industrial competition prompted the enclosure of land and the rise of corporate business organizations, which became the new agents of political power. These new business organizations were controlled by corporate finance. Controlling the wealth and the purse strings of the major corporations, the corporate elite became the powerful and influential politicians of their time. The growth of the middle class and the expansion of democratic ideas and institutions resulted in a new interest group, the managerial class, which made an impact on politics.
Politics and the study of politics are inextricably linked to the field of social class analysis. The social class analysis approach to politics and political economy has emerged out of the classical disciplines of political science like Sociology, Politics, and Law. The early graduates of the graduate schools of these disciplines formulated concepts that would become preconditions to understanding contemporary political sociology and economics. The focus of the social class analysis is on the economic position of the various classes in society.
Politics and the study of politics are intimately connected to the discipline of economics. The concept of liberty, as well as its definition according to different philosophical perspectives, evolved through the interaction of contemporary political struggles and economic conditions in the late modern period. Controlling the means of production, capital mobility, accumulation of wealth, and political power are central to the understanding of how politics influences the economy. The core concepts of classical political economy, like private ownership, free trade, and the rule of law are essential to the understanding of how politics influences the economic system.
Politics and the study of politics are based on the conception that authority arises through a system of laws and practices at the level of the dispersed participatory organizations. Power is thus rooted in the consent of the governed. Political economy traces its origins to the emergence of market prices for goods and services, with the intervention of central and local government to regulate the rates and the extent to which they are regulated by the state. Political economy traces its roots to the emergence of market prices for goods and services, with the intervention of central and local government to regulate the rates and the extent to which they are regulated by the state. The state controls the rate of taxation and the extent to which it controls the distribution of income and wealth
Politics and the study of politics are affected by two critical processes that arise from the process of learning. The first of these processes is instrumental in the creation of knowledge and understanding about politics. This is related to the process of educating the citizens about the relationship between politics and economy, as well as about the nature of political systems. The second process relates to the generation of political ideas and institutions that make citizens concerned about their standing in the society and about the relationship between politics and society in general. It is this second process that has led to a significant development in political sociology over the last century or so.
Contemporary political sociology is an increasingly important field of research and study. Unlike classical political theory, contemporary political sociology has been interested in studying how politics influences the design of institutions and the workings of the modern state. Since the advent of the modern state, politics has become a much more significant area of societal concern. Today it has become an area where scholars debate the effects of various forms of political power on various forms of institution and society. This is particularly true in areas such as international relations, where questions about the nature of politics are often asked as regards to the effects of the power of nation-states on the domestic aspects of life.